- memory hallucination
- Also known as hallucinatory memory, hallucination of memory, and memory illusion. The German expression Halluzination der Erinnerung was introduced in or shortly before 1866 by the German psychiatrist Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828-1899) to denote a hallucination consisting of a re-enactment of a previously perceived object or scene (i.e. a "reperceptive hallucination). In 1888 the term was used somewhat differently by the American idealist philosopher Josiah Royce (1855-1916), as a fantastic false memory that is conjured up retrospectively, so as to serve as a foreboding of a meaningful experience. He arrived at this concept by reflecting on the many cases of "coincidental hallucinations listed in the book Phantasms of the Living by the British paranormal researchers Edmund Gurney (1847-1888), Frederic Myers (1843-1901), and Frank Podmore (1856-1910). Many of these coincidental hallucinations have a bearing on dead or dying individuals, experienced around their actual hour of death. As Royce asked himself, "Why should people who have no interest in believing in telepathy, who are themselves often despisers of the whole idea, and also haters of all superstitions, whose own personal honesty is undoubted, and whose memory is generally good - why should such people suddenly believe and relate that, at some very recent time, just before an affliction, or at the moment of a calamity, they knew, or were warned, by dream or presentiment, of the distant, and, for them, otherwise unknowable fact of the affliction or calamity in question?" Royce answered this question by suggesting that "in such cases we probably have to do with a not yet recognised type of instantaneous hallucination of memory, existing in the fancy at the very moment ofsome exciting experience, that one has expected it before its coming." The German psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) distinguishes three criteria characteristic of hallucinations of memory as conceptualized by Royce. He suggests that the affected individual tends to be convinced that he or she had forgotten about the event, that the hallucinated memory is freshly created, and that it comes to the individual's mind all of a sudden. Today Royce's hallucination of memory is sometimes referred to as " acute confabu-latory psychosis. As the German hallucinations researcher Edmund Parish (1861-1916) points out, Royce's use of the term hallucination in this context is disputable because it would not seem to refer to a perceptual experience. In 1886, 2 years before Royce's publication on the subject, the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) referred to this phenomenon as Erinnerungsfälschung (memory deception), which is perhaps a more apt term. Kraepelin, in turn, had been inspired by the notion of Erinnerungstäuschung put forward by his compatriot Wilhelm Sander (1838-1922). With hindsight, the notions of hallucination of memory, Erinnerungsfälschung,and Erinnerungstäuschung are considered part of a conceptual tradition involving 'qualitative' memory disturbances called paramnesias.ReferencesJaspers, K. (1997). Generalpsychopathology. Volume 1. Translated by Hoenig, J., Hamilton, M.W. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins University Press.Kahlbaum, K. (1866). Die Sinnesdelirien. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und psychischgerichtliche Medizin, 23, 56-78.Koehler, K., Jacoby, C. (1978). Acute confabula-tory psychosis: A rare form of unipolar mania? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 57, 415-425.Kraepelin, E. (1886). Ueber Erinnerungsfälschungen. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 17, 830-843.Markovâ, I.S., Berrios, G.E. (2000). Paramnesias and delusions of memory. In: Memory disorders in psychiatric practice. Edited by Berrios, G.E., Hodges, J.R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Royce, J. (1888). Hallucination of memory and 'telepathy'. Mind, 13, 244-248.
Dictionary of Hallucinations. J.D. Blom. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
hallucination of memory — see memory hallucination … Dictionary of Hallucinations
memory illusion — A term used to denote a false memory rather than a perceptual phenomenon, characterized by a failure to distinguish accurately between an event that actually took place and one that was merely imagined or thought about. The term memory… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
Memory Serves — Studio album by Material Released 1981 … Wikipedia
hallucination — hallucinational, hallucinative /heuh looh seuh nay tiv, neuh tiv/, adj. /heuh looh seuh nay sheuhn/, n. 1. a sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind, caused by various physical and mental disorders, or by reaction to… … Universalium
Hallucination — For other uses, see Hallucination (disambiguation). Hallucination Classification and external resources My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer … Wikipedia
Memory (novel) — For the film, see Memory, for other uses see Memory (disambiguation) Infobox Book | name = Memory title orig = translator = image caption = author = Bennett Joshua Davlin cover artist = country = United States language = English series = genre =… … Wikipedia
memory flashback — see the entries flashback, experiential hallucination, and reperceptive hallucination … Dictionary of Hallucinations
hallucinatory memory — see memory hallucination … Dictionary of Hallucinations
non-coincidental hallucination — A term used to denote a hallucination, usually * visual in nature, which the * hallucinator believes to coincide with an actual event (typically the dying of another person) without this being the case. The term non coincidental hallucination… … Dictionary of Hallucinations
lilliputian hallucination — A term used to denote a hallucination featuring miniature individuals, animals, objects, or fantasy figures. The notion of lilliputian hallucination constitutes the logical and conceptual counterpart of the gulliverian hallucination. Both… … Dictionary of Hallucinations